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Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Feb 7;14(2):3705-17. doi: 10.3390/ijms14023705.

Covalent Coupling of Nanoparticles with Low-Density Functional Ligands to Surfaces via Click Chemistry.

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  • 1NanoElectronics (NE) Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.


We demonstrate the application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click" reaction) to couple gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with low densities of functional ligands. The ligand coverage on the citrate-stabilized Au NPs was adjusted by the ligand:Au surface atom ratio, while maintaining the colloidal stability of the Au NPs in aqueous solution. A procedure was developed to determine the driving forces governing the selectivity and reactivity of citrate-stabilized and ligand-functionalized Au NPs on patterned self-assembled monolayers. We observed selective and remarkably stable chemical bonding of the Au NPs to the complimentarily functionalized substrate areas, even when estimating that only 1-2 chemical bonds are formed between the particles and the substrate.

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