Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013 Apr;69(4):346-58. doi: 10.1111/aji.12083. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Fetal regulatory T cells and peripheral immune tolerance in utero: implications for development and disease.

Author information

  • 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. burtt@peds.ucsf.edu

Abstract

The developing fetus must actively learn to tolerate benign antigens or suffer the consequences of broken tolerance. Tolerance of self-antigens prevents development of autoimmune diseases and is achieved by both deletion of autoreactive T cell clones in the thymus (central tolerance) and by the suppressive influence of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the periphery. Fetal CD4(+) T cells have a strong predisposition to differentiate into tolerogenic Tregs that actively promote self-tolerance, as well as tolerance to non-inherited antigens on chimeric maternal cells that reside in fetal tissues. As the fetus nears birth, a crucial transition must occur between the tolerogenic fetal immune system and a more defensive adult-type immune system that is able to combat pathogens. This paper will review the unique tolerogenic nature of fetal T cells and will examine evidence for a novel model of fetal immune development: the layered immune system hypothesis.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PMID:
23432802
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3951896
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Blackwell Publishing Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk