Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Front Immunol. 2013 Feb 20;4:39. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00039. eCollection 2013.

Chronic schistosome infection leads to modulation of granuloma formation and systemic immune suppression.

Author information

  • 1Graduate Training Program in Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Department of Internal Medicine-Rheumatology, University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Abstract

Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

KEYWORDS:

T helper lymphocytes; hygiene hypothesis; immune regulation; sialyl Lewis glycans; soluble egg antigen

PMID:
23429492
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3576626
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk