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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013 Sep;101(9):2679-88. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.34562. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

The effect of surface roughness on RAW 264.7 macrophage phenotype.

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  • 1Department of Oral Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3.


Monocyte-derived cells, including macrophages and foreign body giant cells, can determine the performance of implanted devices. Upon contact with biomaterials, macrophages can be activated into a classic inflammatory (M1) or wound-healing (M2) phenotype. Previously, we showed that high macrophage density on rough SLA implants was associated with early bone formation. This study examined a possible mechanism, namely, surface roughness activation of macrophages to the M2 phenotype to enhance bone formation on the SLA surface. RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on SLA or smooth (Po) epoxy substrates and the expression of the M1 and M2 specific markers, NOS2 and Arg-1 measured by qPCR on days 1, 3, and 5. Additionally, secretion of inflammation-associated cytokines and chemokines was studied by antibody arrays and ELISAs. Controls included RAW 264.7 macrophages primed into the M1 or M2 phenotypes by LPS/IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively. Rough SLA surfaces did not activate Arg-1 and NOS2 expression, but relative to Po surfaces MCP-1 and MIP-1α were upregulated after 5 days, whereas the secretion of the M1-associated chemokine IP-10 was lowered. RAW 264.7 macrophages on the SLA surface thus adopted elements of an M2-like phenotype, suggesting that when implanted the SLA surfaces may enhance wound repair.

Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


MCP-1 (CCL2); chemokines; macrophage; macrophage activation; surface roughness

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