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Indian J Dent Res. 2012 Sep-Oct;23(5):568-73. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.107328.

Effect of the gingival display on posed smile with different facial forms: a comparison of dentists and patients concepts.

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  • 1Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, VSPM's Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.



The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the importance of amount of gingival display on smile esthetics and facial attractiveness in males and females with different facial forms by orthodontists as well as lay person.


Frontal photographs of 18 male and female patients (9 male and 9 female) each, at a posed smile, seeking treatment in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics were obtained. The photographs were divided in 3 groups based on their facial forms (Short face, Average face and Long face) and were altered by moving the dentition within the lip frame of the captured photograph to bring about different gingival display at smile. The pictures were divided into six groups with gingival exposures of 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. The pictures were rated for attractiveness by four sets of evaluators - male and female Orthodontists and male and female lay evaluators. The statistical analysis methods used for the study included Mean score calculation, standard deviation and Analysis of variance: [test (Mono- Variance)]. The Student t test (two tailed, independent) has been used to find the significance of rating scores between lay person and orthodontist, and also between males and females evaluators.


No significant difference in ratings of gingival display in the 3 groups of photographs was noted by lay person and orthodontists. The results point to the fact that the influence of amount of gingival display on smile esthetics was independent of the facial form. It was also observed that gingival display of 0 mm to 2 mm was acceptable to both the lay person and the orthodontists.


As the amount of gingival display increased, the ratings for facial attractiveness by both orthodontists and lay person decreased. Higher scores were given by both orthodontists and lay person for photographs which showed gingival display of 0-2 mm, suggesting this value to be most acceptable.

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