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J Prev Med Public Health. 2013 Jan;46(1):50-60. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.1.50. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

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  • 1Preventive Medicine Program, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.



This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing.


This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships.


The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008).


This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.


Family; Fertility; Social class

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