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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 May;25(5):573-9. doi: 10.1111/clr.12115. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Peri-implant bone formation of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma-treated zirconia implants with different surface roughness in rabbit tibiae.

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  • 1Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dental Research Institute and School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.



The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the osseointegration of powder-injection molded (PIM) zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae with or without He plasma treatment.


Twenty-five rabbits received 4 types of external hex implants with identical geometry in the tibiae: PIM zirconia implants, roughened PIM zirconia implants, plasma-treated PIM zirconia implants, and plasma-treated roughened PIM zirconia implants. The contact angles of the four types of implants were evaluated. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed.


The plasma treatment markedly enhanced the hydrophilicity, but did not seem to change the surface topography of the PIM zirconia implants. There were statistically significant differences in the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratios, bone volume (BV/TV), and removal torque values (RTQ) among the tested implant types (P < 0.001). The plasma-treated implants exhibited significantly higher BIC and BV/TV values than the untreated implants. However, the removal torque values favored the rough surface.


The He plasma treatments on PIM zirconia implants made the surface more hydrophilic and enhanced the osseointegration of the implants without changing the micro-topography.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


animal experiment; atmospheric pressure plasma; biomaterials; bone-implant interaction; zirconia implants

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