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Dairy Sci Technol. 2013 Jan;93(1):21-43. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review.

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  • 1Dairy Chemistry Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001 India.


in English, Chinese

Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a C-terminal part (f 106-169) of kappa-casein which is released in whey during cheese making by the action of chymosin. GMP being a biologically active component has gained much attention in the past decade. It also has unique chemical and functional properties. Many of the biological properties have been ascribed to the carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide. The unique set of amino acids in GMP makes it a sought-after ingredient with nutraceutical properties. Besides its biological activity, GMP has several interesting techno-functional properties such as wide pH range solubility, emulsifying properties as well as foaming abilities which are shown to be promising for applications in food and nutrition industry. These properties of GMP have given new dimension for the profitable utilization of cheese whey to the dairy industry. A number of protocols for isolation of GMP from cheese whey have been reported. Moreover, its role in detection of sweet/rennet whey adulteration in milk and milk products has also attracted attention of various researchers, and many GMP-specific analytical methods have been proposed. This review discusses the chemico-functional properties of GMP and its role in the detection methods for checking cheese or sweet whey adulteration in milk. Recent concepts used in the isolation of GMP from cheese whey have also been discussed.


Adulteration; Cheese whey; Chemico-functional properties; Glycomacropeptide; 化学-功能特性; 干酪乳清; 掺假; 糖巨肽

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