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J Control Release. 2013 Apr 28;167(2):210-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.01.029. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Manganese-loaded lipid-micellar theranostics for simultaneous drug and gene delivery to lungs.

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  • 1Molecular Medicine Department, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Box MDC7, 12901 Bruce B Downs, Tampa, FL 33612, United States.


Gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents are predominantly used for T(1) MR imaging. However, the high toxicity of Gd(3+) and potential side effects including nephrogenic systemic fibrosis have led to the search for alternative T(1) contrast agents. Since manganese (Mn) has paramagnetic properties with five unpaired electrons that permit high spin number, long electronic relaxation times, and labile water exchange, we evaluated Mn as a T(1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for lung imaging. Here we report on the design and synthesis of multifunctional lipid-micellar nanoparticles (LMNs) containing Mn oxide (M-LMNs) for MRI that can also be used for DNA and drug delivery. Oleic acid-coated MnO nanoparticles were encapsulated in micelles composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), DC-cholesterol, and dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). The particles are taken up in vitro by human embryonic kidney (HEK293), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1), and A549 cells and are devoid of cytotoxicity. When administered to mice intranasally, they preferentially accumulate in the lungs. In vitro phantom and ex vivo lung MRI results confirmed that M-LMNs are able to enhance T(1) MRI contrast. M-LMNs loaded with plasmid DNA and/or doxorubicin are efficiently taken up by HEK293 cells in vitro and by target cells in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that M-LMNs are capable of simultaneously providing MRI contrast and DNA and/or drug delivery to target cells in the lung and therefore may prove useful as a lung theranostic, especially for lung cancers.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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