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Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014 Jan;33(1):32-40. doi: 10.1177/0960327112472990. Epub 2013 Feb 5.

Hepatic effects of ketamine administration for 2 weeks in rats.

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  • 11Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty, Rize University, Rize, Turkey.


The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term and high-dose application of ketamine on the liver by employing histologic and biochemical methods. A total of 30 male rats were randomly assigned to control and four treatment groups (n: 6). Saline for control group and different doses of ketamine for four treatment groups (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg kg⁻¹) were administered intraperitoneal twice a day for 2 weeks. Immunohistological staining, light and electron microscopy were used to study tissue specimens. Histopathological changes were more severe and diverse in groups 80 and 100 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹, and the least significant change was observed in groups 40 and 60 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹. The most important ultrastructural changes were seen in mitochondria and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The immunoreactivity of calcineurin was determined as different. Prolonged use of ketamine caused hepatocellualar toxicity and histological changes in hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner in all experimental groups.


Hepatotoxicity; ketamine

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