Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
Forensic Sci Int. 2013 Mar 10;226(1-3):299.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.01.009. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

From toe to head: use of robust regression methods in stature estimation based on foot remains.

Author information

  • 1Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Investigación sobre Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, Avda. Monforte de Lemos 5 (Pabellón 14), 28029 Madrid, Spain.


Stature estimation is a standard procedure in the fields of forensic and biological anthropology, bio-archaeology and paleoanthropology, in order to gain biological insights into the individuals/populations studied. The most accurate stature estimation method is based on anatomical reconstruction (i.e., the Fully method), followed by type I regression equations (e.g., ordinary least squares - OLS) based on long bones, preferably from the lower limb. In some cases, due to the fragmentary nature of the osseous material recovered, stature estimates have to rely on other elements, such as foot remains. In this study, we explore stature estimation based on different foot bones: the talus, calcaneus, and metatarsals 1-4 in Afro- and Euroamericans of both sexes. The approach undertaken in this study is novel for two reasons. First, individual estimates for each bone are provided, and tarsals and metatarsals are combined in order to obtain more accurate estimates. Second, robust statistical methods based on type I regression equations are used, namely least trimmed squares (LTS). Our results show that the best individual bones for estimating stature are the first and second metatarsal and both the talus and the calcaneus. The combination of a tarsal and a metatarsal bone slightly improves the accuracy of the stature estimate.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk