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Addict Behav. 2013 Apr;38(4):1881-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.12.006. Epub 2012 Dec 16.

Cue-induced cigarette craving and mixed emotions: a role for positive affect in the craving process.

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  • 1Department of Psychological Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA. jcveille@uark.edu

Abstract

Craving is an important component of nicotine addiction, and extant research has demonstrated a clear link between cue-induced craving and negative affect, with mixed results in the positive affect domain. The current study was designed to test the idea that cue-reactive craving might be associated with a mixed emotional process, or the simultaneous experience of positive and negative affect. Participants were 86 non-deprived regular smokers and tobacco chippers who provided simultaneous ratings of positive and negative affect during cue exposure to pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cigarette cues. Results indicated that self-reported craving was elevated in response to cigarette cues compared to other valenced cue types and craving was higher to pleasant cues than either neutral or unpleasant cues. Mixed emotional responses were higher to cigarette cues than other cue types. In addition, mixed emotional responses to cigarette cues predicted craving even after controlling for smoker type, difficulties regulating negative emotion, baseline craving level and mixed emotional responses to neutral cues. As the first study to investigate mixed emotions and cigarette craving, our results highlight the importance of examining the relationship between cue-reactive craving and emotional response using models of emotion that allow for measurement of nuanced emotional experience. In addition, our findings suggest that positive affect processes may indeed play a role in craving among non-deprived smokers.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
23380484
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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