Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 May;55:476-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.034. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

The effects of long-term exposure to ozokerite mainly consisting of an aliphatic series of hydrocarbons using F344 rats.

Author information

  • 1Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.


Combined chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of ozokerite (OZK), a natural wax substance used as a food additive for a gum base, were performed in male and female F344 rats. Dietary concentrations of 0%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% OZK were applied in a 52-week chronic toxicity study and 0%, 0.1% and 0.2% in a 104-week carcinogenicity study. In the chronic toxicity study, treatment with OZK caused a xenobiotic reaction against absorbed OZK, including formation of histiocytosis and granulomas with crystalline material in many organs in all of the treated males and females. Particularly in the liver, granulomatous inflammation was accompanied by hepatocellular vacuolation and changes in the serum biochemical parameters indicative of hepatic disorder. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci were increased in all of the treated groups of both sexes, suggesting the proliferative effect of OZK. In the carcinogenicity study, the incidence of hepatocellular adenoma and the total tumor incidence in the liver of all of the treated males were significantly increased compared with the controls. In conclusion, long-term exposure to OZK caused systemic chronic inflammation due to a foreign body response. OZK was weakly carcinogenic in the liver of male F344 rats.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk