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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Mar 14;15(10):3535-42. doi: 10.1039/c3cp44172e. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Hierarchical nanostructured core-shell Sn@C nanoparticles embedded in graphene nanosheets: spectroscopic view and their application in lithium ion batteries.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.


Hierarchical carbon encapsulated tin (Sn@C) embedded graphene nanosheet (GN) composites (Sn@C-GNs) have been successfully fabricated via a simple and scalable one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) procedure. The GN supported Sn@C core-shell structures consist of a crystalline tin core, which is thoroughly covered by a carbon shell and more interestingly, extra voids are present between the carbon shell and the tin core. Synchrotron spectroscopy confirms that the metallic tin core is free of oxidation and the existence of charge redistribution transfer from tin to the carbonaceous materials of the shell, facilitating their intimate contact by chemical bonding and resultant lattice variation. The hybrid electrodes of this material exhibit a highly stable and reversible capacity together with an excellent rate capability, which benefits from the improved electrochemical properties of tin provided by the protective carbon matrix, voids and the flexible GN matrices.

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