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J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013 Apr;57:119-28. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01.013. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining.

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  • 1Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.


The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of low-intensity endurance training and detraining on the mechanical and molecular properties of cardiomyocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs and normotensive control Wistar rats at 16-weeks of age were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals: NC8 and HC8 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 8weeks); NT8 and HT8 (normotensive and hypertensive trained at 50-60% of maximal exercise capacity for 8weeks); NC12 and HC12 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 12weeks); NDT and HDT (normotensive and hypertensive trained for 8weeks and detrained for 4weeks). The total exercise time until fatigue (TTF) was determined by a maximal exercise capacity test. Resting heart rate (RHR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured. After the treatments, animals were killed by cervical dislocation and left ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dispersion. Isolated cells were used to determine intracellular global Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transient and cardiomyocyte contractility (1Hz; ~25°C). [Ca(2+)]i regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot, and the markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Exercise training augmented the TTF (NC8, 11.4±1.5min vs. NT8, 22.5±1.4min; HC8, 11.7±1.4min vs. HT8, 24.5±1.3min; P<0.05), reduced RHR (NT8initial, 340±8bpm vs. NT8final, 322±10bpm; HT8initial, 369±8bpm vs. HT8final, 344±10bpm; P<0.05), and SBP in SHR animals (HC8, 178±3mmHg vs. HT8, 161±4mmHg; P<0.05). HC8 rats showed a slower [Ca(2+)]i transient (Tpeak, 83.7±1.8ms vs. 71.7±2.4ms; T50%decay, 284.0±4.3ms vs. 264.0±4.1ms; P<0.05) and cell contractility (Vshortening, 86.1±6.7μm/s vs. 118.6±6.7μm/s; Vrelengthening, 57.5±7.4μm/s vs. 101.3±7.4μm/s; P<0.05), and higher expression of ANF (300%; P<0.05), skeletal α-actin (250%; P<0.05) and a decreased α/β-MHC ratio (70%; P<0.05) compared to NC8. Exercise training increased [Ca(2+)]i transient (NC8, 2.39±0.06F/F0 vs. NT8, 2.72±0.06F/F0; HC8, 2.28±0.05F/F0 vs. HT8, 2.82±0.05F/F0; P<0.05), and cell contractility (NC8, 7.4±0.3% vs. NT8, 8.4±0.3%; HC8, 6.8±0.3% vs. HT8, 7.8±0.3%; P<0.05). Furthermore, exercise normalized the expression of ANF, skeletal α-actin, and the α/β-MHC ratio in HT8 rats, augmented the expression of SERCA2a (NC8, 0.93±0.15 vs. NT8, 1.49±0.14; HC8, 0.83±0.13 vs. HT8, 1.32±0.14; P<0.05) and PLBser16 (NC8, 0.89±0.18 vs. NT8, 1.23±0.17; HC8, 0.77±0.17 vs. HT8, 1.32±0.16; P<0.05), and reduced PLBt/SERCA2a (NC8, 1.21±0.19 vs. NT8, 0.50±0.21; HC8, 1.38±0.17 vs. HT8, 0.66±0.21; P<0.05). However, all these adaptations returned to control values within 4weeks of detraining in both SHR and normotensive control animals. In conclusion, low-intensity endurance training induces positive benefits to left ventricular myocyte mechanical and molecular properties, which are reversed within 4weeks of detraining.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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