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Urology. 2013 Feb;81(2):376-80. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.10.050.

Decrease in lean body mass in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: mechanism and biomarkers.

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  • 1Division of Urology, Department of Regenerative and Transplant Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan. harasho@med.niigata-u.ac.jp



To elucidate the mechanism of the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-related decrease in lean body mass (LBM).


The LBM and blood samples were studied before and after 6 months of ADT in 72 patients with localized prostate cancer. The LBM was assessed using a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyzer.


Before ADT, the LBM correlated with none of the serum sex steroid levels; however, it correlated closely with serum 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.409, P = .001) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.329, P = .005). After ADT, the LBM decreased by 0.9% (P = .036), and the serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone had decreased by 96.8% and 94.3%, respectively (P <.001 for both), and the IGF-I had increased by 11.6% (from 19.9 to 22.2 nmol/L, P = .001). The serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D] levels decreased after ADT by 9.8% (from 66.2 to 59.7 pg/mL, P = .008), and the post-treatment LBM correlated inversely with 1,25(OH)2D (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = -0.343, P = .003). The post-treatment LBM was dissociated with 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide and IGF-I. The pretreatment and post-treatment LBMs both correlated inversely with serum sex hormone-binding globulin (P = .024 and P = .016, respectively).


The deficiency in androgen levels was suggested to be a link to the ADT-related decrease in LBM; the androgen metabolite 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide has a potential value for assessing the LBM in untreated men. IGF-I also promotes muscle building and is positively regulated during ADT. Sex hormone-binding globulin possibly accelerates the ADT-related decrease in LBM. Although the mechanism for the decrease in 1,25(OH)2D and its inverse correlation with LBM during ADT is unclear, 1,25(OH)2D might be a biomarker reflecting the ADT-related decrease in LBM.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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