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Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:6023-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347367.

Detection and localization of radiotherapy targets by template matching.

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  • 1Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.


Radio opaque fiducials are implanted in tumors for the purpose of tracking the target motion using X-ray projections during radiation therapy dose delivery. In this paper we describe and evaluate a novel method based on template matching for detection and localization of arbitrary shaped fiducials. Segmentation methods are not adequate for these fiducials because their appearance in online X-ray projections can vary greatly as a function of imaging angle. The algorithm is based on using the planning CT image to generate templates that correspond to the imaging angles of the online images. We demonstrate successful tracking of complex shape fiducials in clinical images of lung and abdomen. We also validate the algorithm by comparing the results with a segmentation approach for one case in which the fiducials could be tracked by both methods. We also show how by adaptive thresholding of the match scores, we can control the false detection rate.

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