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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Aug;20(8):5114-24. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1499-y. Epub 2013 Jan 27.

Graphene-a promising material for removal of perchlorate (ClO4-) from water.

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  • 1CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 630 006, India.


A batch adsorption process was applied to investigate the removal of perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) from water by graphene. In doing so, the thermodynamic adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies were also carried out. Graphene was prepared by a facile liquid-phase exfoliation. Graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and zeta potential measurements. A systematic study of the adsorption process was performed by varying pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The adsorption efficiency of graphene was 99.2 %, suggesting that graphene is an excellent adsorbent for ClO4 (-) removal from water. The rate constants for all these kinetic models were calculated, and the results indicate that second-order kinetics model was well suitable to model the kinetic adsorption of ClO4 (-). Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The experimental results showed that graphene is an excellent perchlorate adsorbent with an adsorbent capacity of up to 0.024 mg/g at initial perchlorate concentration of 2 mg/L and temperature of 298 K. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Graphene removed the perchlorate present in the water and reduced it to a permissible level making it drinkable.

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