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PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54913. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054913. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Dietary proportions of carbohydrates, fat, and protein and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type.

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  • 1Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.



Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain.


Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors.


Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.73), and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34-2.87), while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56). Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly.


A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

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