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PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54073. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054073. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Activation of thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) increases the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and recruits macrophages to promote invasion of lung cancer cells.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.


Thromboxane synthase (TXAS) and thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP), two critical components for thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) signaling, have been suggested to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TXA(2) promotes these processes are still unclear. Here we show that TXA(2) mimetic, I-BOP, induced monocyte chemoattractant protein -1(MCP-1)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression at both mRNA and protein levels in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells stably over-expressing TP receptor α isoform (A549-TPα). The induction of MCP-1 was also found in other lung cancer cells H157 and H460 that express relatively high levels of endogenous TP. Using specific inhibitors of several signaling molecules and promoter/luciferase assay, we identified that transcription factor SP1 mediates I-BOP-induced MCP-1 expression. Furthermore, supernatants from I-BOP-treated A549-TPα cells enhanced MCP-1-dependent migration of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, co-culture of A549 cells with RAW 264.7 macrophages induced expression of MMPs, VEGF and MCP-1 genes, and increased the invasive potential in A549 cells. These findings suggest that TXA(2) may stimulate invasion of cancer cells through MCP-1-mediated macrophage recruitment.

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