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Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2012 Oct;15(4):281-6. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.104336.

Oxidative stress is increased in women with epilepsy: Is it a potential mechanism of anti-epileptic drug-induced teratogenesis?

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Oxidative stress can be a final common pathway for AED-induced teratogenesis.

AIMS:

To compare the oxidative stress of women with epilepsy (WWE) and unfavorable pregnancy outcome (fetal malformation or spontaneous abortion - group EM) with that of WWE with normal pregnancy outcome (group ENM) and healthy women with normal pregnancy outcome (group C).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We identified WWE under group EM (n = 43) and group ENM (n = 22) from the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP). Group C was constituted of healthy volunteers (N = 20). Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and isoprostane (ISP). The antioxidant profile was evaluated as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAO), and glutathione (GSH) content.

RESULTS:

The MDA and ISP levels for group EM (3.46 + 0.82 and 17.77 + 3.0) were higher than that of group ENM (3.07 + 1.02 and 14.0 + 5.3), and both were significantly higher than that of group C (2.42 + 0.51 and 10.77 + 4.1). Their levels of SOD (146.82 + 42.64 vs. 175.81 + 42.61) and GSH (0.98 + 0.98 vs. 1.55 + 1.3) were significantly lower than those of controls. No significant changes were seen in TAO and GR. WWE on polytherapy showed significant increase in MDA when compared to monotherapy group.

CONCLUSION:

WWE (group EM and ENM) had higher oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant activity. The subgroup of WWE with unfavorable pregnancy outcome (group EM) had higher oxidative stress. Excess oxidative stress can be a final common pathway, by which AEDs exert teratogenic effects.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-epileptic drugs; antioxidant; epilepsy; fetal malformation; oxidative stress; teratogenesis

PMID:
23349593
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3548366
Free PMC Article
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