Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Dec;39(4):172-5. doi: 10.5653/cerm.2012.39.4.172. Epub 2012 Dec 31.

Causes and classification of male infertility in Korea.

Author information

  • 1Department of Urology, Cheil General Hospital, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.



The aim of this study is to investigate the various causes of male infertility using multiple approaches.


Nine-hundred-twenty infertile male patients were analyzed at their first visit with one physician between January 1 and December 31, 2009. All patients were subjected to physical examination, semen analysis and azoospermic patients underwent hormonal testing, chromosomal tests, and testicular biopsy. Semen analysis was based on the definition of the World Health Organization.


Among the 920 patients, 555 patients (60.3%) had semen results within the normal range, 269 patients (29.2%) within the abnormal range, and 96 (10.5%) were diagnosed with azoospermia. Varicoceles were diagnosed in 84 of the 555 normal-range patients (15.1%) and in 113 of the 269 abnormal-range patients (42.0%). Of the 96 patients with azoospermia, 24 patients (25%) were diagnosed with obstructive azoospermia, 68 patients (71%) with non-obstructive azoospermia, and 4 patients (4%) with retrograde ejaculation.


Various causes of male infertility have been reported and diverse treatment methods can be adopted for each cause. In this regard, research must be conducted on a larger number of patients to accurately assess the various causes of infertility in Korean patients and to investigate various infertility treatment methods.


Azoospermia; Male infertility; Varicocele

Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (1)Free text

Figure 1
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk