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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Mar;32(3):413-20. doi: 10.1007/s10096-012-1758-8. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Impact of multidrug resistance on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia outcome: predictors of early and crude mortality.

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  • 1Infectious Diseases Service, IDIBELL, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, C/ Feixa Llarga S/n., L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain. cpena@bellvitgehospital.cat


The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa has increased over the past decade and a significant rise in these isolates in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been observed. However, the impact of MDR on VAP outcome has not been analysed in depth. We investigated the risk factors for early and crude mortality in a retrospective study of microbiologically and clinically documented VAP. Ninety-one VAP episodes in 83 patients were included, 31 caused by susceptible P. aeruginosa and 60 by MDR strains, of which 42 (70 %) were extensively drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa. Thirteen episodes concomitantly presented P. aeruginosa bacteraemia, in seven of which the origin was the respiratory tract. Whereas susceptible P. aeruginosa episodes were more likely than MDR episodes to receive adequate empirical (68 % vs. 30 %; p < 0.001) and definitive antimicrobial therapy (96 % vs. 50 %; p < 0.001), susceptible P. aeruginosa VAP presented a trend towards early mortality (29 % vs. 15 %; p = 0.06). A logistic regression model with early mortality as the dependent variable identified multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) [odds ratio (OR) 10.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.7-63.5; p = 0.01] and inadequate antibiotic therapy (OR 4.27; 95 % CI 0.98-18.4; p = 0.052) as independent risk factors for early mortality. A similar analysis identified MODS (OR 4.31; 95 % CI 1.14-16.2; p = 0.03) as the only independent predictor of crude mortality. The severity of acute illness clinical presentation was the main predictor of mortality. Despite adequate antibiotic therapy, susceptible P. aeruginosa seems to cause major early mortality. Although adequate therapy is essential to treat VAP, the severity of acute illness is a more important factor than drug resistance.

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