Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr;88(4):789-94. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0319. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Hepatitis B, C, and D and HIV infections among immigrants from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain.

Author information

  • 1Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. pablorivasg@hotmail.com


A total of 1,220 subjects from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain (median age = 41 years; 453 male and 767 female) was examined for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV), and D (HDV) viruses. Extracted RNA and DNA from the positive samples were used to quantify viral load. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HCV RNA, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was 10.8% (N = 132), 11.6% (N = 141), and 7.9% (N = 96), respectively. The most prevalent HIV variant was CRF02_AG (38.5%; N = 40). HCV genotype 4 (60%; N = 36) and HBV genotype A3 (32%; N = 8) were the hepatitis variants most frequently found. Superinfection with HDV was seen in 20.9% (N = 24) of HBsAg carriers. A control group of 276 immigrants from other sub-Saharan countries showed similar rates of HIV and HBsAg, although no HCV cases were found. Immigrants constitute a major source of HIV and hepatitis viruses in Spain; therefore, it is important that control measures are intensified.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (2)Free text

Figure 1.
Figure 2.
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk