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Front Physiol. 2013 Jan 11;3:493. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00493. eCollection 2012.

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm.

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  • 1Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Córdoba, Argentina ; Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (IIByT-CONICET) Córdoba, Argentina ; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología Córdoba, Argentina.

Abstract

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities.

KEYWORDS:

St. Louis encephalitis virus; West Nile virus; arbovirus; transmission cycles; transmission network

PMID:
23335900
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3542535
Free PMC Article
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