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J Hazard Mater. 2013 Feb 15;246-247:310-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.12.018. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

The oxidation of acid azo dye AY 36 by a manganese oxide containing mine waste.

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  • 1Department of Soil Science, Stellenbosch University, P/Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.


The oxidative breakdown of acid azo dye acid yellow 36 (AY 36) by a Mn oxide containing mine tailings is demonstrated. The oxidation reaction is pH dependent with the rate of decolorization increasing with decreasing pH. The oxidation reaction mechanism is initiated at the amino moiety and proceeds via successive, one electron transfers from the dye to the Mn oxide minerals. The reaction pathway involves the formation of a number of colorless intermediate products, some of which hydrolyze in a Mn oxide-independent step. Decolorization of the dye is rapid and is observed before the cleavage of the azo-bond, which is a slower process. The terminal oxidation products were observed to be p-benzoquinone and 3-hydroxybenzenesulfonate. The reaction order of the initial decolorization was determined to be pseudo fractional order with respect to pH and pseudo first order with respect to dye concentration and Mn tailings' surface area.

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