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Arch Med Sci. 2012 Dec 20;8(6):1048-52. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2012.32413. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Vascular adhesion protein-1 and renalase in regard to diabetes in hemodialysis patients.

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  • 1Department of Nephrology and Transplantology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.



Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a copper-containing semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, and endothelial cells with functional monoamine oxidase activity. Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, which breaks down catecholamines like SSAO, is also expressed in the endothelium as well as in the kidney. The aim of the study was to assess VAP-1 level and its correlation with renalase level in 60 hemodialyzed (HD) patients.


Complete blood count, urea, serum lipids, fasting glucose and creatinine were studied by the standard laboratory method in the hospital central laboratory. We assessed VAP-1 and renalase with commercially available assays.


The mean level of VAP-1 as well as renalase was significantly higher in HD patients when compared to the control group (291.01 ±94.91 ng/ml vs. 158.34 ±56.89 ng/ml, p < 0.01; 27.53 ±9.394.91 µg/ml vs. 4.00 ±1.37 µg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). In hemodialysis patients VAP-1 correlated with presence of diabetes (r = 0.27, p < 0.05), presence of hypertension (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), use of calcium channel blockers (r = 0.30, p < 0.05), use of β-blockers (r = 0.25, p < 0.05), ejection fraction (r = -0.38, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure before (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) and after hemodialysis (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), and weight gain (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). Renalase was not significantly different in diabetic and non-diabetic patients or between hypertensive and normotensive patients. In multiple regression analysis VAP-1 was predicted 77% by serum ejection fraction and fibrinogen.


Vascular adhesion protein-1, elevated in patients on hemodialysis, was predominantly dependent on blood pressure and diabetes, both factors associated with endothelial damage and promoting cardiovascular complications. Renalase appeared to be unrelated to VAP, at least in the HD population.


diabetes; hemodialysis; renalase; vascular adhesion protein-1

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