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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Feb;17(2):178-85. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.12.0314.

Anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adults exposed to isoniazid preventive therapy in Botswana.

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  • 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Botswana, Gaborone and Francistown, Botswana.



Eight public health clinics in Gaborone and Francistown, Botswana.


To describe the characteristics and outcomes of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults exposed to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) with access to antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis treatment.


In 1995 HIV-infected adults, TB disease was excluded before commencing IPT. During and after receipt of 6 or 36 months of IPT, symptomatic participants were evaluated using chest radiographs, sputum microscopy, cultures and drug susceptibility testing (DST). Incident TB cases received ≥6 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment.


Seventy-five incident TB cases were identified among 619 symptomatic participants. The median duration of IPT in these cases was 6 months (range 1-35), and the median time to initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment was 12 months after IPT cessation. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated before anti-tuberculosis treatment in 37 cases. Culture was positive in 43/58 (74%) TB cultures. DST was available for 38 cases, of which six (16%) were resistant to isoniazid (INH); 67/75 (89%) cases, including four with INH-monoresistant TB, completed anti-tuberculosis treatment or were cured.


With prompt initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment and access to ART, excellent outcomes were achieved in a public health setting in HIV-infected adults who developed TB disease.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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