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Support Care Cancer. 2013 Jun;21(6):1677-84. doi: 10.1007/s00520-012-1713-3. Epub 2013 Jan 13.

Development and preliminary validation of the pancreatic cancer disease impact score.

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  • 1Division of Cancer, Surgery and Transplantation, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 4956, Oslo, 0424, Norway. Turid.Heiberg@ldh.no



Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical practice and research, and should reflect what patients perceive as important. The objective of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief, patient-derived, disease-specific tool, the pancreatic cancer disease impact (PACADI) score.


The development was performed in two phases. Forty-one patients with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC) selected dimensions of health related to the impact of the disease. A weighting of the eight most frequently reported dimensions was performed in a second sample of 80 PC patients who also rated the impact on eight numeric rating scales (NRS, range 0 to 10). The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to compute the PACADI score (range 0 to 10). The patients also completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and EQ-5D.


Dimensions reported by more than 20% of the patients were included in the PACADI score (relative weights in parenthesis): pain/discomfort (0.16), fatigue (0.16), anxiety (0.15), bowel/digestive problems (0.14), loss of appetite (0.13), dry mouth (0.11), itchiness (0.08), and nausea (0.07). The PACADI score in the 80 PC patients had a mean (SD) value of 3.26 (2.06) (95% CI 2.80, 3.71), was moderately to strongly correlated to ESAS sense of well-being (r = 0.69) and EQ-5D (r = -0.52), and discriminated significantly between patients with and without PC.


The PACADI score is a new eight-item, patient-derived, disease-specific measure. Preliminary validation regarding construct validity and discrimination encourages further validation in independent patient samples.

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