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Forensic Sci Int. 2013 Mar 10;226(1-3):94-105. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.12.014. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

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  • 1Department of Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.


Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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