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Nephrology (Carlton). 2013 Apr;18(4):307-12. doi: 10.1111/nep.12031.

Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients in mainland China: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

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  • 1Department of Infectious Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.



The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in Mainland China.


In this multicenter cross-sectional study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. CKD was defined as GFRMDRD  < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or isolated proteinuria (≥1 + on urine dipstick) that persisted at month 3 after the baseline assessment. Risk factors associated with CKD were examined using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis.


In total, 538 HIV-infected ART-naïve patients were included in this study. There were 399 male and 139 female patients. The mean age was 36.5 ± 10.0 years. The prevalence of hypertension, glycometabolism abnormities, and CKD were 3.2%, 3.0%, and 16.1%, respectively. Thirteen (2.4%) patients had estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), while 73 (13.7%) patients had proteinuria. Using univariate analysis, CKD was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, hypertension, HCV co-infection, and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL. In the multivariate logistic regression model, older age (increased by an interval of 10 years; P = 0.002), HCV co-infection (P = 0.039), and plasma HIV-1 viral load ≥ 100 000 copies/mL (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with CKD.


The incidence of CKD is high in Chinese HIV-infected ART-naïve patients. Traditional risk factors for renal disease, such as advancing age, HCV co-infection, and higher plasma viral load were correlated with CKD in the present patient samples.

© 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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