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Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Oct;50(10):782-7.

[Adenosine receptors agonists mitigated PAH of rats induced by chronic hypoxia through reduction of renin activity/angiotensin II levels and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide levels].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Recent studies showed that adenosine played important roles in vasodilation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adenosine, its A1 and A2b receptor agonists on pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) induced by chronic hypoxia in rats by continuously subcutaneous administration with an osmotic pump for 14 days, and to see if rennin angiotensin system and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) mediate the effects.

METHOD:

Fifty-six male SD rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Each group included eight rats. They were normoxic group, hypoxic group, adenosine-treated group [adenosine was administered at a dose of 150 µg(kg·min) under the hypoxic condition], adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA-treated group [CPA was administered at a dose of 20 µg/(kg·min) under the hypoxic condition], CPA plus selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX-treated group [CPA and DPCPX were administered simultaneously under the hypoxic condition, the dose of CPA was the same as the above, and the dose of DPCPX was 25 µg/(kg·min)], adenosine A2b receptor agonist NECA-treated group [NECA was administered at a dose of 30 µg/(kg·min) under the hypoxic condition], NECA plus selective adenosine A2b receptor antagonist MRS-treated group[ NECA and MRS1754 were administered simultaneously under the hypoxic condition, the dose of NECA was the same as the above, and the dose of MRS1754 was 50 µg/(kg·min)]. Osmotic pumps containing adenosine or selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist (CPA), or nonselective but potent adenosine A2b receptor agonist (NECA) were placed subcutaneously 7 days after hypoxia and continuously administered the agents for 14 days.Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected after administration of the agents. Then blood samples were taken from heart for measurement of renin activity, angiotensin II (AngII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration by radioimmunoassay, NO by measuring nitrate. Small pulmonary arteries were prepared for immunoreactivity staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and iNOS.

RESULT:

(1) Chronic hypoxia induced PAH [mPAP: (31.38 ± 3.42) mm Hg]. Adenosine or CPA or NECA administered for 14 days by subcutaneous route attenuated the mPAP [(21.17 ± 3.56) mm Hg, (22.88 ± 2.95) mm Hg, (19.81 ± 2.39) mm Hg, respectively], which showed significant difference when compared with hypoxia group (P < 0.05 respectively). (2) Plasma rennin activity and AngII level in hypoxia group [(2.51 ± 0.25) ng/(ml·h), (83.01 ± 9.38) pg/ml] were significantly higher than that in normoxic group (P < 0.05, respectively).(3) Adenosine treatment decreased the rennin activity and AngII level when compared with hypoxic group(P < 0.05, respectively);CPA and NECA attenuated respectively the rennin activity and AngII level of rats induced by chronic hypoxia (P < 0.05, respectively). (4) Adenosine administration for 14 days attenuated the wall thickness induced by chronic hypoxia (P < 0.05). CPA showed no effect on wall thickness, but NECA significantly attenuated the wall thickness (P < 0.05). (5) The number of iNOS staining positive cells in small pulmonary artery was higher in hypoxia group than in that in normoxic rats (23.75 ± 7.91 vs. 8.00 ± 2.20, P < 0.05). Adenosine or CPA, or NECA administration increased respectively the iNOS expression in rats treated with chronic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia caused significant decrease of nitric oxide level. Adenosine treatment increased the nitric oxide level in rats treated with chronic hypoxia. CPA and NECA also increased respectively the nitric oxide level in rats treated with chronic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia caused significant increase of ET-1 level. The ET-1 level in rats treated with adenosine, CPA or NCEA respectively were lower than that in chronic hypoxia rats (P < 0.05). (6) Adenosine treatment partially attenuated the number of PCNA-positively stained cells. NECA treatment also attenuated the PCNA expression, but CPA showed no effect.

CONCLUSION:

Adenosine and its agonists CPA, NECA administered continually by subcutaneous route attenuate mPAP of rats induced by chronic hypoxia. CPA attenuates mPAP through reduction of RA/AngII activity and balance of NO/ET-1 level. NECA attenuates mPAP by inhibiting PCNA expression and proliferation of mooth muscle of pulmonary artery.

PMID:
23302571
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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