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J Med Virol. 2013 Mar;85(3):413-8. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23505. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Prevalence of and risk factors for penile infection by high-risk human papillomavirus among men infected with HIV.

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  • 1Foundation of Tropical Medicine Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection and precursor lesions of penile cancer among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In total, 276 men with a mean age of 34.6 years were included. All participants were subjected to peniscopic examination under magnification, collection of genital exfoliated cells for detecting HPV types using Hybrid Capture, and biopsy surgery of clinically observable lesions and aceto-white areas for histopathological studies. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types was 43%. Peniscopicy showed clinically visible lesions or aceto-white areas in 75/276 participants (27%), of which genital warts were the most common (22/75; 29%). HIV-positive (HIV(+) ) men with CD4(+) T-cell counts <200 cells/mm(3) showed a higher prevalence of penile lesions. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for high-risk HPV types. The results showed that high-risk HPV was associated with lower education level (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.15-3.13), illicit drug use (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.03-3.14), mulatto ethnicity (OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.38-4.54), heterosexual orientation (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.30-3.47) symptomatic AIDS (OR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.65-4.77), AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.78-4.78), on HAART (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.78-4.77), and CD4(+) T-cell count <200 cells/mm(3) (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.84-5.96). Immunocompromised men were more susceptible to developing penile lesions associated with high-risk HPV types.

Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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