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Ann Hematol. 2013 May;92(5):679-87. doi: 10.1007/s00277-012-1662-4. Epub 2012 Dec 30.

Allo-HSCT for acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage in adults: the comparison between standard conditioning and intensified conditioning regimens.

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  • 1Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou Dadao North Street no. 1838, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.


Knowledge concerning the clinical and biological characteristics of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) is limited so that there has been a lack of uniformity in treatment. In this report, we retrospectively investigated the effect of intensified conditioning on adult ALAL undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A total of 59 patients with ALAL (male in 37 cases and female in 22 cases) were consecutively enrolled in the data analyses. Twenty-four patients received the standard conditioning (total body irradiation (TBI) + cyclophosphamide (CY) or busulfan + CY protocol) and 35 received the intensified conditioning (TBI + CY + etoposide or fludarabine + cytarabine plus TBI + CY + etoposide protocol). Five-year transplant-related mortality was 17.6 ± 9.6 % and 25.5 ± 8.0 %, the 5-year overall survival (OS) post-transplantation was 23.8 ± 8.9 % and 64.0 ± 8.4 %, disease-free survival was 16.7 ± 7.6 % and 55.8 ± 9.4 %, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 80.8 ± 8.5 % and 28.8 ± 9.9 %, respectively, in the standard and the intensified group (P = 0.380, P = 0.029, P = 0.005, and P < 0.001). Both univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that the intensified conditioning regimen and acute graft-versus-host disease were favorable factors to reduce the relapse. The younger patients, patients with CR at the time of transplantation, and the intensified conditioning regimen were favorable factors to elevate the survival. In conclusion, intensified conditioning regimens followed by allo-HSCT might improve long-term survival and decrease relapse of leukemia in adult ALAL compared to the standard conditioning regimens.

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