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Urology. 2013 Jan;81(1):178-83. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.09.010.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase is upregulated in patients with hypospadias.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Urology Surgery, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.



To investigate the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 in human hypospadiac tissue compared with that in normal penile tissue.


Penile skin tissue specimens obtained at surgery during hypospadias repair or during elective circumcision were divided into 3 groups according to the position of the urethral meatus: children with mild hypospadias (n=16), severe hypospadias (n=16), and normal controls (n=16). The expression of total and phosphorylated JNK1 and JNK2 at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunochemistry, and Western blot analysis.


JNK1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression and JNK1 and JNK2 phosphorylated protein levels increased significantly in subjects with mild or severe hypospadias compared with the controls (P<.05). JNK2 phosphorylated protein levels increased significantly in those with severe hypospadias compared with those with mild hypospadias (P<.05). Those with hypospadias had increased phosphorylation protein expression of JNK1/2 in the mesenchymal cell layers of the preputial subcutaneous mesenchymal cell layer.


Our findings suggest that JNK upregulation might contribute to the development of hypospadias and might associated with mesenchymal cell migration in the process of external male genitalia defect development.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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