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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Jan;131(1):80-93. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182729e9e.

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with three-dimensional reconstruction in preoperative perforator flap planning.

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  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People‚Äôs Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Along with technical advancements in perforator flap surgery, great interest has been recently focused on the accuracy of preoperative perforator location through the assessment of the donor-site vascular network. The goal of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with three-dimensional reconstruction in the planning of perforator flaps.

METHODS:

The authors retrospectively analyzed the preoperative imaging vascular anatomy provided by contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with three-dimensional reconstruction in 32 patients undergoing perforator flap reconstruction between 2009 and 2011. The static and dynamic features of any suitable perforator including number of branches, source vessel, running course, blood flow pattern and velocity (peak systolic velocity and resistance index), and its anatomical relationship were assessed preoperatively by the novel navigation imaging. Based on this information, the preferred perforator and the ideal donor site were selected for the flap harvesting. The accuracy of preoperative imaging data was checked during surgery.

RESULT:

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound provided a continuous blood flow signal and a clear and reliable image of perforators, and three-dimensional reconstruction displayed their spatial anatomical relationship and their roots. Consistent with the surgical findings, perforators were identified accurately in all 32 cases with high specificity (100 percent) and sensitivity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with three-dimensional image reconstruction provides valuable preoperative perforator navigation. It detects precisely the perforator's location, its course, and the quality of its blood flow and allows the choice of the preferred perforator and the ideal donor site. Preoperative location of perforators using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with three-dimensional image reconstruction improves flap planning and eases flap harvesting.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Diagnostic, IV.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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