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Neuropharmacology. 2014 Mar;78:75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.12.005. Epub 2012 Dec 25.

Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: relevance to nervous system homeostasis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiology & Membrane Biology, Shriners Hospital for Children Northern California, University of California Davis School of Medicine, 2425 Stockton Blvd, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Electronic address: lnborodinsky@ucdavis.edu.
  • 2Department of Physiology & Membrane Biology, Shriners Hospital for Children Northern California, University of California Davis School of Medicine, 2425 Stockton Blvd, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Abstract

During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity'.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Activity-dependent; Neurotransmitter phenotype

PMID:
23270605
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3628948
Free PMC Article
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