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J Formos Med Assoc. 2012 Dec;111(12):667-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2012.10.016. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Infections associated with body modification.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, Research Centre for Infection and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong¬†Kong, Hong Kong.

Abstract

Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID:
23265745
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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