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Virology. 2013 Feb 20;436(2):247-54. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.11.010. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Intracellular nucleotide levels and the control of retroviral infections.

Author information

  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Abstract

Retroviruses consume cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to convert their RNA genomes into proviral DNA through reverse transcription. While all retroviruses replicate in dividing cells, lentiviruses uniquely replicate in nondividing cells such as macrophages. Importantly, dNTP levels in nondividing cells are extremely low, compared to dividing cells. Indeed, a recently discovered anti-HIV/SIV restriction factor, SAMHD1, which is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, is responsible for the limited dNTP pool of nondividing cells. Lentiviral reverse transcriptases (RT) uniquely stay functional even at the low dNTP concentrations in nondividing cells. Interestingly, Vpx of HIV-2/SIVsm proteosomally degrades SAMHD1, which elevates cellular dNTP pools and accelerates lentiviral replication in nondividing cells. These Vpx-encoding lentiviruses rapidly replicate in nondividing cells by encoding both highly functional RTs and Vpx. Here, we discuss a series of mechanistic and virological studies that have contributed to conceptually linking cellular dNTP levels and the adaptation of lentiviral replication in nondividing cells.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
23260109
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3804251
Free PMC Article
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