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Anal Chem. 2013 Feb 5;85(3):1896-904. doi: 10.1021/ac303188j. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Development and validation of the first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for simultaneous quantification of multiple antiretrovirals in meconium.

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  • 1Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, United States.


A novel method for the simultaneous quantification of 16 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and 4 metabolites in meconium was developed and validated. Quantification of 6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 2 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 7 protease inhibitors, and 1 integrase inhibitor was achieved in 0.25 g of meconium. Specimen preparation included methanol homogenization and solid-phase extraction. Separate positive and negative polarity multiple reaction monitoring mode injections were required to achieve sufficient sensitivity. Linearity ranged from 10 to 75 ng/g up to 2500 ng/g for most analytes and 100-500 ng/g up to 25,000 ng/g for some; all correlation coefficients were ≥0.99. Extraction efficiencies from meconium were 32.8-119.5% with analytical recovery of 80.3-108.3% and total imprecision of 2.2-11.0% for all quantitative analytes. Two analytes with analytical recovery (70.0-138.5%) falling outside the 80-120% criteria range were considered semiquantitative. Matrix effects were -98.3-47.0% and -98.0-67.2% for analytes and internal standards, respectively. Analytes were stable (>75%) at room temperature for 24 h, 4 °C for 3 days, -20 °C for 3 freeze-thaw cycles over 3 days, and on the autosampler. Method applicability was demonstrated by analyzing meconium from HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers on ARV therapy. This method can be used as a tool to investigate the potential effects of in utero ARV exposure on childhood health and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

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