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Diabetes Care. 2013 May;36(5):1153-8. doi: 10.2337/dc12-1168. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Diabetes and risk of fracture-related hospitalization: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

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  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.



To examine the association between diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of fracture-related hospitalization in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.


Fracture-related hospitalization was defined using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, codes (733.1-733.19, 733.93-733.98, or 800-829). We calculated the incidence rate of fracture-related hospitalization by age and used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association of diabetes with risk of fracture after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral risk factors.


There were 1,078 incident fracture-related hospitalizations among 15,140 participants during a median of 20 years of follow-up. The overall incidence rate was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8-4.3). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.42-2.14). There also was a significantly increased risk of fracture among persons with diagnosed diabetes who were treated with insulin (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.15-3.05) and among persons with diagnosed diabetes with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥8% (1.63; 1.09-2.44) compared with those with HbA1c <8%. Undiagnosed diabetes was not significantly associated with risk of fracture (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.82-1.53).


This study supports recommendations from the American Diabetes Association for assessment of fracture risk and implementation of prevention strategies in persons with type 2 diabetes, particularly those persons with poor glucose control.

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