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J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Apr;59(2):134-9. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fms065. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Trends in childhood tuberculosis in Zambia: a situation analysis.

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  • 1Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. nkapata@gmail.com



To ascertain childhood tuberculosis (TB) trends, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence rates in Zambia.


A retrospective review of Zambian annual TB notification data and National TB Programme reports for a 7 year period (2004-2011). TB trends were stratified by age and HIV status.


The total number of children notified during this period with all forms of TB was 40 976. A total of 2670 of 40 976 (6%) were smear-positive cases. Notification rates of all forms of childhood TB show a decline in trends from 135 per 100 000 population in 2004, to 69 per 100 000 population in 2011.


Childhood TB is an important but neglected problem in Zambia highlighted by the fact that no data exists on HIV co-infection and MDR-TB. Strengthening of the National TB Programme and diagnostics services/algorithms are required to accurately define the TB burden, HIV co-infection and MDR-TB rates in children in Zambia.

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