Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 2013 Jan 15;190(2):565-77. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202462. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

PGE(2) induces macrophage IL-10 production and a regulatory-like phenotype via a protein kinase A-SIK-CRTC3 pathway.

Author information

  • 1Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Sir James Black Centre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom.


The polarization of macrophages into a regulatory-like phenotype and the production of IL-10 plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. We show in this study that PGE(2), in combination with LPS, is able to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages characterized by high expression of IL-10 and the regulatory markers SPHK1 and LIGHT via a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. Both TLR agonists and PGE(2) promote the phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser(133). However, although CREB regulates IL-10 transcription, the mutation of Ser(133) to Ala in the endogenous CREB gene did not prevent the ability of PGE(2) to promote IL-10 transcription. Instead, we demonstrate that protein kinase A regulates the phosphorylation of salt-inducible kinase 2 on Ser(343), inhibiting its ability to phosphorylate CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3 in cells. This in turn allows CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3 to translocate to the nucleus where it serves as a coactivator with the transcription factor CREB to induce IL-10 transcription. In line with this, we find that either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of salt-inducible kinases mimics the effect of PGE(2) on IL-10 production.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk