Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 May;37(5):818-30. doi: 10.1111/acer.12033. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

Approaching the prevalence of the full spectrum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a South African population-based study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Nutrition Research Institute, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA. philip_may@unc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first-grade children in a South African community.

METHODS:

Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first-grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with randomly selected, normal controls on (i) physical growth and dysmorphology; (ii) cognitive/behavioral characteristics; and (iii) maternal risk factors.

RESULTS:

The rates of specific diagnoses within the FASD spectrum continue to be among the highest reported in any community in the world. The prevalence (per 1,000) is as follows: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-59.3 to 91.0; partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS)-45.3 to 69.6; and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)-30.5 to 46.8. The overall rate of FASD is therefore 135.1 to 207.5 per 1,000 (or 13.6 to 20.9%). Clinical profiles of the physical and cognitive/behavioral traits of children with a specific FASD diagnosis and controls are provided for understanding the full spectrum of FASD in a community. The spectral effect is evident in the characteristics of the diagnostic groups and summarized by the total (mean) dysmorphology scores of the children: FAS = 18.9; PFAS = 14.3; ARND = 12.2; and normal controls, alcohol exposed = 8.2 and unexposed = 7.1. Documented drinking during pregnancy is significantly correlated with verbal (r = -0.253) and nonverbal ability (r = -0.265), negative behaviors (r = 0.203), and total dysmorphology score (r = 0.431). Other measures of drinking during pregnancy are significantly associated with FASD, including binge drinking as low as 3 drinks per episode on 2 days of the week.

CONCLUSIONS:

High rates of specific diagnoses within FASD were well documented in this new cohort of children. FASD persists in this community. The data reflect an increased ability to provide accurate and discriminating diagnoses throughout the continuum of FASD.

Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

PMID:
23241076
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3610844
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk