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Br J Radiol. 2013 Jan;86(1021):20120272. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20120272.

Measures used to treat contrast-induced nephropathy: overview of reviews.

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  • 1Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK. shingkwok@doctors.org.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Despite many interventions that have been tried, controversy remains regarding the efficacy of interventions for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), so we aimed to evaluate the best evidence from recent meta-analyses.

METHODS:

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for interventions which have been used for CIN. We included only the most recent meta-analysis of each intervention. We extracted data on the methodology, quality and results of each meta-analysis. We performed narrative synthesis and adjusted indirect comparison of interventions that were shown to be statistically significant compared with a placebo.

RESULTS:

We included 7 systematic reviews and meta-analyses involving 9 different interventions for CIN, with a total of 15 976 participants. A significantly decreased risk of CIN was reported in meta-analysis of the following interventions: N-acetylcysteine [odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.88, I(2)=64%], theophylline [relative risk (RR) 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.89, I(2)=44%], statins (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.77, I(2)=0%) and sodium bicarbonate (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.86, I(2)=49%). Furosemide was shown to increase the risk of CIN (RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.48-7.26, I(2)=0%). Other interventions such as renal replacement therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, dopamine and fenoldapam failed to show any significant difference from the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Although there is some evidence to suggest that N-acetylcysteine, theophylline, sodium bicarbonate and statins may reduce incidence of CIN, limitations in the study quality and heterogeneity preclude any firm recommendations.

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:

N-acetylcysteine, theophylline, sodium bicarbonate and statins show some promise as potentially efficacious agents for preventing CIN, but more high-quality studies are needed before they can be recommended for use in routine practice.

PMID:
23239696
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3615404
Free PMC Article
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