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J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2013 Feb;35(2):185-92. doi: 10.1007/s11239-012-0831-6.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors stimulate tissue-type plasminogen activator production in vascular endothelial cells.

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  • 1The Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. pia.larsson@gu.se


A reduced capacity for acute tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is likely to be associated with an impaired endogenous defense against intravascular thrombosis. Efficient approaches to pharmacologically restore a defective t-PA release have been lacking, but recent observations suggest that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) enhance t-PA production in vitro. HDACis have diverse chemical structures and different HDAC-enzyme sub-class targeting. We here compared the effects of several clinically used HDACis on t-PA production in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to a panel of 11 different HDACis and t-PA mRNA and protein levels were quantified. All HDACis dose-dependently stimulated t-PA mRNA and protein expression with similar maximal efficacy but with different potencies. Already at low concentrations, the majority of inhibitors caused significant and sustained effects on t-PA production. In addition, selected HDACis were capable of normalizing t-PA production when suppressed by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. We conclude that HDACis targeting classical HDAC enzymes are powerful inducers of t-PA expression in cultured endothelial cells and could be promising candidates for pharmacological modulation of endogenous fibrinolysis in man.

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