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J Clin Med Res. 2012 Dec;4(6):424-8. doi: 10.4021/jocmr1080w. Epub 2012 Nov 11.

GAD65 Positive Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, New York, USA.


Limbic encephalitis is a rare disorder affecting the medial temporal lobe of the brain, sometimes also involving hippocampus atrophy. It was initially considered to be only of paraneoplastic origin but now auto-immune (non-paraneoplastic) cases have also been reported. Most common non paraneoplastic antibodies associated with limbic encephalitis are Voltage gated potassium channel antibodies, NMDA receptor antibodies and GAD receptor antibodies. We present a case of limbic encephalitis which presented with sudden onset seizures which was preceded by confusion, disorientation and other psychiatric symptoms for a period of 5 weeks. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. CSF and serum examination showed high titers GAD65 antibody guiding towards a diagnosis of non paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. Her symptoms and GAD 65 antibody titers showed significant improvement following immunomodulatory therapy. The case presented here is unique and scientifically relevant, as it intends to raise awareness of Auto-immune Limbic Encephalitis, a potentially reversible cause of a medical emergency.


Autoimmune; GAD Antibody; Limbic encephalitis; Seizure

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