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ISRN Pediatr. 2012;2012:975685. doi: 10.5402/2012/975685. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Diabetic and metabolic programming: mechanisms altering the intrauterine milieu.

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  • 1Medical Clinic and Policlinic IV, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.


A wealth of epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have been linked to poor intrauterine conditions as well as metabolic and associated cardiovascular changes postnatal. These are novel perspectives connecting the altered intrauterine milieu to a rising number of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia as well as the Metabolic Syndrome (Met S). Moreover, metabolic associated atherosclerotic diseases are connected to perigestational maternal health. The "Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis" introduced cross-generational links between poor conditions during gestation and metabolic as well as cardiovascular alterations postnatal. Still, mechanisms altering the intrauterine milieu causing metabolic and associated atherosclerotic diseases are currently poorly understood. This paper will give novel insights in fundamental concepts connected to specific molecular mechanisms "programming" diabetes and associated metabolic as well as cardiovascular diseases.

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