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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Jan;88(1):103-7. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0236. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Serological evidence for eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010.

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  • 1Vermont Department of Health, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA.


Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Vermont. Analysis of the spatial distribution of PRNT-positive samples revealed a random distribution of EEEV throughout the state. The results indicate widespread EEEV activity in Vermont and suggest that EEEV is not a recent introduction to the state but that EEEV activity has not been detected until now.

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