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J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Dec 19;134(50):20433-9. doi: 10.1021/ja308606t. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

A new method to generate arene-terminated Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces via a palladium-catalyzed arylation reaction.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.


Formation of silicon-aryl and germanium-aryl direct bonds on the semiconductor surface is a key issue to realize molecular electronic devices, but the conventional methods based on radical intermediates have problems to accompany the side reactions. We developed the first example of versatile and efficient methods to form clean organic monolayers with Si-aryl and Ge-aryl bonds on hydrogen-terminated silicon and germanium surfaces by applying our original catalytic arylation reactions of hydrosilanes and hydrogermanes using Pd catalyst and base in homogeneous systems. We could immobilize aromatic groups with redox-active and photoluminescent properties, and further applied in the field of rigid π-conjugated redox molecular wire composites, as confirmed by the successive coordination of terpyridine molecules with transition metal ions. The surfaces were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Especially, the AFM analysis of 17 nm-long metal complex molecular wires confirmed their vertical connection to the plane surface.

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